Human Growth Hormone is produced in the body by the pituitary gland. Before this happens, Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (Human Growth Hormone RH) and Somatostatin (SST) are released by the hypothalamus, and that determines whether more or less Human Growth Hormone is produced by the pituitary.(1) Many factors influence the release of Human Growth Hormone, however, including nutrition and exercise (6)(7).
Once it is released, Human Growth Hormone (Human Growth Hormone), which is also called Human Growth Hormone (STH) has many functions in the human body. Human Growth Hormone is a protein that stimulates the body cells to increase both in size, as well as undergo more rapid cell division than usual. In addition, it enhances the movement of amino acids through cell membranes and also increases the rate at which these cells convert these molecules into proteins. Clearly, you can see that this would amount to an anabolic (muscle building) effect in the human body. Human Growth Hormone also has the ability to cause cells to decrease the normal rate at which they utilize carbohydrates, and simultaneously increase the rate at which they use fats.(1) Fat loss and lean mass increases with Human Growth Hormone have been found at a dose as low as . 0.028 iu/kg/daily for 24 weeks (4), however, in my estimation, that would be insufficient for a bodybuilder trying to gain muscle. Lets use .028iu/kg as a working number; that's 2.8iu for a 100kg (220lbs) bodybuilder. That's certainly not unreasonable, and I would say that that dose to 2x that dose is the range most bodybuilders and athletes are finding their best results with. Also, that length of time used in the study I just mentioned (24 weeks) is very typical of Human Growth Hormone use, and in conversations with my friends who have used this compound, have told me that they experience consistent results starting well after the 2-month-mark, and they tend to either run this stuff for 6 months at a time, or year-round (if they have sufficient funds). One of my friends is able to consistently retain a shredded 6-7% body fat all year round with the assistance of Human Growth Hormone, whether he is on steroids or off. He also has noted that his cardio (fast walking, for an hour a day) was much easier while on Human Growth Hormone than when off, and certainly the research Ive done would support his claim that sub maximal aerobic ability is improved with Human Growth Hormone use (5) (15).
How anabolic is this stuff? Well, even endurance athletes at rest (!) were observed in one study to be in an anabolic state (8). Yeah, so you can basically run marathons and take this stuff, and still build some muscle. Pretty impressive, right?
Human Growth Hormone is usually secreted in rhythmic pulses while you are sleeping, as two peptides, Human Growth Hormone RH and Somatostatin (SST) are alternately released. As you can guess, Human Growth Hormone RH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) is the one responsible for the Release of Growth Hormone (And who said scientists have funny ways for naming things.(1)
Human Growth Hormone also has the ability to stimulate the production (or reproduction, in the case of an injury) of cartilage. This, however, requires the presence of a mediator substance, Somatomedin (IGF), which is released from the liver in response to Human Growth Hormone, and the IGF, in turn, actually promotes the growth of cartilage.(1)
Although Human Growth Hormone requires IGF to actually grow new cartilage, Human Growth Hormone is directly able to stimulate the elongation of bone tissue.(1), and Human Growth Hormone has also been shown to elicit a positive effects on erythropoeisis (9), which is great for both anabolism as well as endurance.
Remember the negative feedback loop I always tell you about? Well, of course, your body has one which can stop the secretion of Human Growth Hormone, and it involves IGF. When your liver receives secretes IGF-1, it sends a message to both your Hypothalamus as well as your Pituitary to stop producing Human Growth Hormone. (1)
As you have probably guessed by now, your body produces the majority of its Human Growth Hormone during your early years, when you are experiencing growth spurts. As you get older, however, you just produce less of this stuff, and its effects are much less pronounced. This was the driving force behind the (always weird) life-extension crowd embracing Human Growth Hormone in the early 90s. And, as usual, the driving force behind the athletic world embracing Human Growth Hormone was Dan Duchaine, which Im sure comes as no surprise to many. He first wrote a teaser about it in his Underground Steroid Handbook, and then wrote extensively about it for the next couple of decades. At that time, Grorm, was being used. This nasty stuff was Human Growth Hormone extracted from (are you ready?): the pituitary of dead bodies? Thats real "Dawn of the Dead" style science, in my opinion. I guess its an advance from a couple of centuries ago, when Descartes (the "I think therefore I am" guy) declared the pituitary the part of the human body where the soul resides. Anyway, back to the cadaver-thing, the Human Growth Hormone extracted from the cadavers was found to be able to (in rare cases) carry a rare brain disease. This of course, infected the kids who received the infected Human Growth Hormone. The use of Human Growth Hormone from cadavers was subsequently discontinued. Back then (the 80s) there was also a fake version of some purple looking Human Growth Hormone going around (it was HCG I believe, mixed with B-12) called "Rhesus Monkey Growth Hormone", which is pretty funny, looking back on it. To this day, however, if you get fake Human Growth Hormone, its still probably HCG, since both come presented as a powder and bacterioistatic water you need to use to reconstitute it (and then it needs to be refrigerated).
Even if you are using the non-cadaver-derived stuff (and at this point, Im 100% sure that theres none of the old Grorm left on shelves anywhere), its possible that you experience some side effects like carpal tunnel syndrome, acromegaly (a thickening or growth of bones, most noticeable in the feet, hands, and forehead), and enlarged organs. Gynocomastia is also possible as a side effect of Human Growth Hormone use, as well as Fluid retention (16) (the later being initially pointed out to me by a female colleague who had a pre-contest bodybuilder using Human Growth Hormone as part of his contest prep).
Now for some really interesting stuff:
Although Human Growth Hormone can easily produce very nice, high quality weight and muscle gains, its a very poor compound for inducing strength gains(2)(3)(4). Thats very counterintuitive, and certainly many strength athletes have experienced great results in strength as well as muscle size and fat loss from Human Growth Hormone. Generally, many studies have focused on Human Growth Hormone vs. Human Growth Hormone and exercise, and without the exercise LBM increases but not usually maximum voluntary strength output. It should also be noted that most athletes utilizing Human Growth Hormone are using it in a "cocktail" with (at least) anabolic steroids, and usually with IGF, thyroid meds, and other goodies such as an Aromatase Inhibitor.
Lets discuss exactly why this is.
Most people who are taking the plunge into Human Growth Hormone use have reached a dead end with their use of anabolics, and need to push through that wall. I'm sure you've heard about the synergistic combination of using Human Growth Hormone along with Anabolic Steroids, IGF, insulin and T3 (* usually synthroid, a thyroid medication). The reason is that when these hormones are used correctly together, theyll produce a large amount of synergy, the insulin is able to shuttle nutrients into your muscle, the thyroid hormone increases your fat-burning capability, the IGF will cause muscle growth as well as helping to grow new cartilage (thus preventing injury), and the anabolic steroids like testosterone, specifically (in addition to being anabolic) can increase IGF-1, in muscle tissue(11), and maybe even increase your bodys ability to use it. Also, usually, an increased amount of IGF usually tells your body to stop producing Human Growth Hormone, but testosterone actually blunts this part of the Negative FeedBack Loop (12)! And the addition of an Aromatase Inhibitor will also stop conversion of testosterone into estrogen; estrogen reduces IGF levels.(13)(14) Finally, the Human Growth Hormone does, well everything I just spent the last few pages telling you about!
Thus, IGF, Testosterone (and of course other steroids), Insulin, thyroid meds, and Human Growth Hormone will all combine to produce a pretty damned effective fat-burning and muscle building cycle! You know what else? Human Growth Hormone is virtually undetectable on any sort of currently used drug-screening tests. Human Growth Hormone, Insulin, Thyroid meds, and IGF may also be used pretty safely by those who may be subject to drug screening tests, or as a non-HPTA suppressive "bridge" between cycles.
Finally, Ill tell you how Id take Human Growth Hormone, personally. There was a study done on continuous Human Growth Hormone use vs. every other day injections (ED vs. EOD for the sake of brevity), with a equal total weekly dose. Although its counter intuitive, every other day injections produced better total growth in the kids in this (2 and 4 year long) study. Take a look at these graphs:
Growth velocity of children treated with alternate day Human Growth Hormone (the darker bars) or with a daily Human Growth Hormone regimen before, during, and 2 yr after stopping therapy. Values are the mean SD. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01.(10)
Pretreatment and cumulative 4-yr growth velocity of children treated with alternate day Human Growth Hormone ( the darker bars) or with a daily Human Growth Hormone regimen. Values are the mean SD. *, P < 0.00 (10)
Shooting Human Growth Hormone every other day more accurately replicates the pulsile frequency of Human Growth Hormone, and thus gave better results for growth (height) deficient children, Human Growth Hormone pulsatility is necessary for proper function of the Human Growth Hormone receptor.(10) Dosing in the EOD nature reduces incidence of any sort of withdrawal problems associated with normal Human Growth Hormone use, including regression or retardation of growth after cessation of therapy.
Therefore, I feel very comfortable speculating that the use of Human Growth Hormone in this manner, which more closely simulates the natural secretion pattern of it, allows the Human Growth Hormone receptors and the rest of the body to more efficiently recover from it, and this will result in much more muscle growth over time (although height was examined in the previous study). My recommendations therefore are 2 shots per day of .028iu/kg of body weight, taken every other day, for a minimum of 3months, and preferably for 2-3x that long, and preferably with the other synergistic compounds we've just taken a look at.
Buying Human Growth Hormone>
You should be paying between $1.75-2.75 per IU of Human Growth Hormone, and since you are going to (necessarily) be buying it in bulk, you should be paying closer to the lower end of that.
History of Steroids References:
- Human Anatomy and Physiology, 6th Edition, John W. Hole jr.
- J Appl Physiol 94: 2273-2281, 2003. First published February 14, 2003; doi:10.1152
- Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol 77, Issue 1 23-29,
- EFFECTS OF RECOMBINANT GROWTH HORMONE ON VISCERAL FAT ACCUMULATION: PILOT STUDY IN HIV-INFECTED ADOLESCENTS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Apr 19; [Epub ahead of print]
- Measures of submaximal aerobic performance evaluate and predict functional response to growth hormone (Human Growth Hormone) treatment in Human Growth Hormone-deficient adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Dec;84(12):4570-7.
- Hormonal responses to consecutive days of heavy-resistance exercise with or without nutritional supplementation. J Appl Physiol, Oct 1998; 85: 1544 - 1555.
- Hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise protocols. J Appl Physiol, Oct 1990; 69: 1442-1450
- High dose growth hormone exerts an anabolic effect at rest and during exercise in endurance-trained athletes.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;88(11):5221-6.
- Christ ER, Cummings MH, Westwood NB, Sawyer BM, Pearson TC, Sonksen PH, Russell-Jones DL. The importance of growth hormone in the regulation of erythropoiesis, red cell mass, and plasma volume in adults with growth hormone deficiency., J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997 Sep;82(9):2985-90
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 87, No.8 3573-3577
- Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Mar;282(3):E601-7.
- Testosterone blunts feedback inhibition of growth hormone secretion by experimentally elevated insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Mar;90(3):1613-7. Epub 2004 Dec 7.
- Comparison of the Metabolic Effects of Raloxifene and Oral Estrogen in Postmenopausal and Growth Hormone-Deficient Women.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Apr 26; [Epub ahead of print]
- Serum insulin-like growth factor I levels in growth hormone-deficient adults: influence of sex steroids.Horm Res. 2004;62 Suppl 1:73-6.
- Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, Nov 2000; 279: 989 - 996.
- J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998 May;53(3):M183-7